Twisted Sister Fights Back Against Name Thieves

For John French, every day is a struggle. The musician, better known by his stage name Jay Jay French, is the founding guitarist of rock band Twisted Sister as well as its manager, and he’s on a crusade to make sure that no business co-opts his band’s name without his permission. And just when one issue gets resolved, another crops up.

Most recently, French has been dealing with a coffee shop owner in Kansas City who decided to name her business "Twisted Sisters." According to the Kansas City Star, the coffee shop’s owners, Sandi Russell (right) and sister Nancy Hansen, weren’t familiar with the band’s name and didn’t realize that they were stepping on anyone’s toes until they received a cease-and-desist letter in the mail from French’s attorney.

French isn’t buying that story, though. "We had a good idea and people try to steal it," he told The Daily Meal in an exclusive interview. "When people tell me that they never heard of us before using our name, I dismiss it right out of hand. Just say 'I stole it;' it’s all good."

French’s quest has also taken him to a bakery in Chicago called Twisted Sister, a Boston pizzeria called Twisted Sister Pizza and Ice Cream, a Minneapolis food truck named Twisted Sister House of Hunger, and even to theme park giant Six Flags, who named two of their Kentucky Kingdom roller coasters the Twisted Sisters and were forced to rename them the Twisted Twins after French caught wind of it.

"Even though these aren’t bands that named themselves after us, we still have to protect our name," he said. "Any connection whatsoever causes confusion in the marketplace. People will think it’s licensed by us."

And it’s not like French is in this to make a buck by forcing businesses to license their name. "We’ve offered every single business the opportunity to license our name for just a couple hundred bucks a year, but 99 percent of the time they just stop using it," he said. "The money that we do take in from licensees is all donated to charity."

The fact that this band in particular seems to be fighting these battles more often than, say, Led Zeppelin, mystifies French.

"You don’t see places like Led Zeppole, Rolling Scones, or Motley Brews," he added. "Nobody wants to mess with them!" (Actually, a restaurant named Led Zeppole briefly existed in New York East Village. but was extremely short-lived.)

At the end of the day, this unending mission is all about protecting what’s his.

"If you don’t protect it you lose it," he said. "Why people think that they can take someone else’s name and use it is beyond me. Just come up with an original idea!"

FOUR THIEVES: vinegar & oil recipes

Herbal lore has it that, while the Plague was raging in France, a rash of burglaries of plague victims’ homes was discovered. No effort was made, however, to apprehend the thieves, as it was assumed that they would soon succumb to the contagion in the homes they had robbed..

The thieves carried on their crime spree for some time, and people began to wonder why they had not become ill and die. It was then that the authorities began to pursue them… to discover the secret of their immunity to the Plague.

Once the burglars had been apprehended, they struck a bargain with the authorities, that they should be set free in exchange for revealing the secret to their immunity to the Plague.

It was then that the four thieves revealed the herbal disinfectant formula that rendered them immune to the Plague.

Current theorists suggest that this formula, now called “Four Thieves Vinegar”, may offer protection against fearsome possible threats, such as the flu, smallpox, and biological weapons, which concern us today, as all of its ingredients are either strong anti-bacterial agents, or have potent anti-viral properties.

1 part lavender, dried
1 part sage, dried
1 part thyme, dried
1 part lemon balm (melissa), dried
1 part hyssop, dried
1 part peppermint, dried
1 handful garlic cloves
Raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar

• In a glass jar, place all dry ingredients.
• Add raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar to cover
• Place jar in a cool place and let sit, at room temperature, for six weeks.
• Strain off herbs and garlic, and decant to a glass bottle or jar with a tight fitting lid.

• Take a teaspoonful several times daily.
• Add to salads either directly or in a salad dressing.
• For personal protection, add a teaspoonful to bath water.
• Use as a topical spray for disinfecting surfaces and/or skin

juniper berries
white wine vinegar

1 part eucalyptus
1 part rosemary
1 part cinnamon
1 part clove
1 part lemon
Carrier oil (olive, jojoba, or your choice)

I put 50 drops of each oil in a 2 oz. bottle and then top it off with jojoba oil (I like jojoba oil because it seems to never go rancid).

An alternative recipe:

200 drops Clove Bud Oil
175 drops Lemon Oil
100 drops Cinnamon Oil
75 drops Eucalyptus Oil
50 drops Rosemary

• Apply 1-2 drops of Four Thieves on the bottoms of the feet and on the nape of the neck.
• Apply under the arms and on the chest.
• Diffuse for 20 minutes or less at work or at home.


I have used Four Thieves for the itch that accompanied a nasty rash that doctors could not diagnose (where is House when you need him?)… I originally applied the Four Thieves oil because I was worried about possible infection after scratching myself bloody in my sleep. The Four Thieves smarted quite a bit when I first applied it, but, then, miraculously, the itch subsided and allowed me to have a life. Although the rash did not disappear, it did diminish markedly every time I applied the oil.

I Had No Idea My Husband Was Abusing Me

"But I'm the one who hit him," I told my therapist. Then she said something that saved my life.

The following is an exclusive excerpt of Goodbye, Sweet Girl: A Story of Domestic Violence and Survival, a new memoir by Kelly Sundberg (available June 5). Here, Kelly describes how she found herself committing to Caleb &mdash a man she thought was "funny, warm, and supportive" at first. But after the birth of their son, Reed, Caleb revealed a violent and dangerous dark side that, in addition to a lingering depression, was difficult for Kelly to grapple with &mdash until a perceptive therapist helped her understand what was really going on in her own home.


The day the test came back with two blue stripes, I put on my jeans and The Flicks T-shirt &mdash the one with Alfred Hitchcock on the back &mdash and drove to work. The Flicks was an indie movie house, and I worked there with artsy types who had lines of poetry tattooed on their forearms, dyed hair, and Converse sneakers. We wanted to make art. Children were not a part of our collective plan.

That morning I strode through the kitchen &mdash past the assistant manager who was making curried sweet potato soup over the large gas range &mdash stood before the espresso machine, turned the machine on to make a latte, and stopped.

I didn&rsquot know if I could drink coffee. Coffee might be poison now. I listened to the whirring of the espresso grinder, the machine grinding the beans into fragments, and peered at my reflection in the brushed steel. I&rsquom not ready, I mouthed.

We had only been together for five months, and had only seen each other a few times a week.

A couple of weeks earlier, while we were sitting on my couch talking, my boyfriend Caleb&rsquos face suddenly started to flush. He looked down and brushed his hand over his head, which I knew meant he was feeling nervous or insecure. He looked up quickly and blurted out, &ldquoKelly, I want to marry you.&rdquo

I sat stunned. It wasn&rsquot a proposal as much as a declaration. We had only been together for five months, and because Caleb lived in the woods, we had only seen each other a few times a week. Twice, he had panicked and disappeared for a week or longer. The first time, I wrote his absence off to jitters. The second time, I called and left a message on his cell phone: &ldquoIf you are interested in a relationship with me, you will call me today, and you will continue to call me on a regular basis. If not, then this is goodbye.&rdquo

He called almost immediately, and then showed up at my apartment that evening, his face and posture apologetic. He wasn&rsquot willing to lose me, he said. He knew that now.

Our relationship hadn&rsquot been idyllic or blissful, but in the moment after he had declared he wanted to marry me, all I could remember were the blissful parts. I looked into his wide blue eyes and remembered lying on that beige couch while he played his guitar and sang &ldquoPale Blue Eyes.&rdquo

I knew it wasn&rsquot responsible. We barely knew each other. He wanted four kids. He wanted to move back home to West Virginia. These were not things I wanted. But I wanted him.

&ldquoOkay,&rdquo I blurted back, &ldquobut I&rsquom not having four kids. I don&rsquot even know if I want kids.&rdquo

He leaned back. &ldquoWhat about two kids?&rdquo

I could handle that. It was all theoretical, after all. &ldquoOkay,&rdquo I said. &ldquoTwo kids.&rdquo

Only two weeks after the proposal, the test came back with two blue stripes. I went to work in the morning but left crying an hour later. I curled up in my bed and wept the entire day. Caleb was out fishing with a friend, but he came as soon as he got my message. He crawled into bed with me, his eyes crushed and vulnerable.

"Let's have an abortion," I whispered. "Let's get married," he said.

&ldquoLet&rsquos have an abortion,&rdquo I whispered, pulling my knees into my chest.

&ldquoLet&rsquos get married,&rdquo he said, smoothing his hand over his head.

He looked at me for a long time and then said, &ldquoKelly, I think that if you have an abortion, our relationship won&rsquot survive that. We&rsquoll have to break up. I don&rsquot want that to happen, do you?&rdquo

I didn&rsquot want to break up. I felt so connected to him.

&ldquoAnd we can get married? I don&rsquot want my child to be raised without married parents.&rdquo

I nodded, but felt no joy. Only fear.


That fall, we moved to Boise. It was a clean little house on a tidy street in an orderly neighborhood with a large fenced yard and a garden. It was the kind of house where a family could be happy.

But we were in a different part of town from our friends, and I grew lonely. I rode my bike through residential neighborhoods to a nearby river trail where I continued the three miles to campus. That bike ride along the calm Boise River was the highlight of my days. While I was on that bike, I felt a freedom that I didn&rsquot feel at home. The heaviness lifted, and sunlight glittered on the water.

By then, the heaviness had become a part of my body. Even sunlight felt heavy. Our son Reed continued to be a joy, but beyond that, I felt so little. As the summer turned to autumn, the sunlight grew heavier and heavier. I could feel its weight on my skin. I did everything that I could to find more energy. I knew that exercise was important, so I would put Reed in the jogging stroller and jog or walk around our neighborhood. I always asked if Caleb wanted to go with me, and he almost always said no. The distance between us was growing, and I was lonelier in that marriage than I had ever been before.

Sometimes I cried when he said no, and he would yell at me, &ldquoQuit crying. You want me to do everything with you. You don&rsquot respect my writing time.&rdquo

Sometimes I would lie in bed and cry for no reason at all, and he would stand in the door and scream at me, &ldquoQuit crying. What are you crying about?&rdquo I would only cry more, then, and say, &ldquoI don&rsquot know why I&rsquom crying. I just don&rsquot know.&rdquo

By then we were arguing more, and I was beginning to feel afraid of him. He would back me into corners while he yelled at me, and I felt so helpless. Once he pushed me against the wall and pinned me. I panicked, lashing out and hitting him in the face.

The wire on his glasses broke, and the lens fell out. He pulled back, the lens in his hand, and I stared in horror. What had I done? I begged him to forgive me, and he did, scooping me into his arms and telling me that it was okay, that he understood.

I was so grateful for his forgiveness. He taped his lens back into his glasses, then offered to go for a walk with me. We walked the stroller to the river and took Reed out. Reed toddled to the banks and threw rocks into the water, while Caleb held on to the back of his shirt to keep him from jumping in. As I watched the way that Caleb protected Reed, again, the heaviness lifted, replaced with tenderness. Caleb held my hand on the way home, and when we got home, he put Reed to bed, made me dinner, and then tucked my head into his chest. The loneliness abated. Neither of us was perfect but we shared an intimacy. We were all that we had.

October came, and the light continued to have this quality of intensity and dimness at the same time. I was no longer trying to be happy I was only trying to be not-depressed.

I took Reed for long walks, and felt myself teetering on a razor&rsquos edge. On one side of that edge was beauty, and on the other side of that edge was despair.

As Reed and I walked alongside the river, I could see into the yards of fancy homes. I wondered what their families were like. Did they, too, feel that something was missing? I finally went to the student health center and told the doctor that I had been feeling depressed. She gave me a depression screening, and after I finished answering the questions, she left the room and then came back. &ldquoWe cannot let you go on like this,&rdquo she said. &ldquoDo you think about suicide?&rdquo

&ldquoYes,&rdquo I answered, &ldquobut I would never do it. I only fantasize about it.&rdquo

&ldquoHow often do you fantasize about it?&rdquo she asked.

"How often do you fantasize about [suicide]?" she asked. "Every day," I said.

I left her office with a prescription for Prozac. I wasn&rsquot particularly interested in saving myself, but I hoped that I had finally found the way to save my marriage.

I continued to see my therapist and continued to tell her about how unhappy I was in my marriage. The Prozac had only achieved a manageable state of numbness for me. I wanted her to teach me how to be happy. Occasionally I would bring Caleb in to see her with me, and he would always talk about how critical I was of him, and how frustrated he felt living with me. After one session she gave us an activity: We were to take a week off from criticism. No matter what, we could not criticize each other. The first couple of days were wonderful. I enjoyed not criticizing him. I enjoyed letting things slide.

Soon, though, he was criticizing me. &ldquoThat&rsquos criticism,&rdquo I would say. &ldquoOh wow, you&rsquore right,&rdquo he would say, and then we would both laugh. It had become a game for us, but at the end of the week, we both realized that I was not the one in the marriage who was prone to criticism. We went back in to my therapist&rsquos office and sat side by side on the couch. &ldquoWhat did you realize this week?&rdquo she asked.

Caleb didn&rsquot pause. &ldquoI realized that I am actually very critical of Kelly,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand that I am too hard on her.&rdquo I was so proud of him for being honest with her. I reached over and squeezed his hand.

She seemed surprised. &ldquoWow,&rdquo she said. &ldquoI hadn&rsquot expected that. How did that make you feel, Kelly?&rdquo

I paused, and then said, &ldquoI was surprised, too, but I feel better now. I think that we&rsquore better now.&rdquo

Caleb and I went home that day and congratulated ourselves. We had done what needed to be done. We had gotten therapy. I had started taking medication. We were working on not arguing so much. We were going to be okay. I knew it.

The following week, we fought again, and again I went to see my therapist. She was obviously disappointed to hear that we were still struggling. &ldquoWhen things get that tense,&rdquo she said, &ldquoyou need to go somewhere. You need to exit the situation.&rdquo

&ldquoWhat do you mean, he won&rsquot let you?&rdquo

&ldquoI mean, he will get in front of me, or back me into the corner. Once he even held me to the wall. I panicked and hit him in the face, so that he would let me leave.&rdquo She sat back, her face concerned. &ldquoKelly, that is domestic violence. What he is doing to you is domestic violence.&rdquo

"Hitting someone to escape is not the same thing as hitting someone to control them," she said.

I was confused. &ldquoBut he has never hit me,&rdquo I said. &ldquoI&rsquom the one who hit him.&rdquo

&ldquoYes,&rdquo she said, &ldquobut hitting someone to escape is not the same thing as hitting someone to control them, and when he is pinning you to the wall or backing you into a corner, then that is physical intimidation, and that is a method of control.It is part of a pattern of violence.&rdquo

She reached into her filing cabinet. &ldquoI am going to give you this flyer,&rdquo she said. &ldquoIt is for the domestic violence shelter, and I want you to keep it for if you need it.&rdquo She pulled out a purple paper and handed it to me.

I stared at the paper. I had no idea what to think. I knew that I wasn&rsquot being abused. He had never hit me, and I was strong. I was independent. I was not someone who would be abused. I tucked the paper into my bag and then rode my bike home.

Kelly and Caleb were married for 10 years, but eventually she was able to leave him. Since then, she's earned a Ph.D. in creative nonfiction from Ohio University and is now a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the same university.

If you or someone you know is at risk of domestic violence, you can call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233 or go to thehotline.org.

From the book: GOODBYE, SWEET GIRL by Kelly Sundberg. Copyright © 2018 by Kelly Sundberg. Reprinted courtesy of Harper, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers.

Rod Taylor and William Smith: Darker Than Amber (1970)

The staged fight for the climax of this film, which was directed by Robert Clouse (Enter the Dragon) turned very real when actors Rod Taylor and William Smith really got into it. It all went down during a scene in which Terry (Smith’s villainous character) attacks Travis McGee (Taylor’s protagonist).

“Fight choreography and staging went out the window when Rod decided to really hit me. And so the fight was on,” Smith told BZ Magazine. “That was a real fight with real blood and real broken bones. Rod is a skilled fighter, and at the same time a real scrapper. Now that was a good fight!”

The movie has never been released on DVD, and if it ever airs on TV, it is likely edited down.

Concord Productions Inc./Golden Harvest Company/Sunset Boulevard/Corbis / Getty


Tangled: Before Ever After

Cassandra in Tangled: Before Ever After.

Cassandra is first seen waiting for Rapunzel's return from a ride with Eugene at Corona's village gates. From there, Cassandra takes Rapunzel to attend to the various duties of a princess, specifically in preparation for her upcoming coronation ceremony to officially crown her as heir to the throne. Rapunzel laments her feelings about the stress of the pressures of royalty overwhelming her. Cassandra believes the princess should take a break regardless of what her father wishes, but Rapunzel refuses to do so. Later at a dinner event, Cassandra sits with Pascal, while Rapunzel sits with her parents, and Eugene sits at the children's table (an arrangement made by Cassandra, who was in charge of seating). Eugene takes the time to propose to Rapunzel, but due to her fears of being bound to live in the castle, Rapunzel rejects the proposal and leaves. Seeing the princess upset angers Cassandra, who glares at Eugene.

That night, Rapunzel agrees to relieve her built-up tension by following Cassandra beyond Corona's border wall to explore the outside world for the night. Cassandra gears up for the adventure, providing Rapunzel with a hooded cloak and the two sneak their way out through a hidden passageway. They journey through the night forest until Cassandra takes Rapunzel to a specific spot where the golden flower that saved Queen Arianna and the yet-to-be-born Rapunzel was grown, which was now occupied by mysterious spiked black rocks. Suddenly, when Rapunzel touches the rocks, a blast of magic hits the two that cause Rapunzel's magic, golden hair to return.

The two return to the castle where Cassandra tries desperately to cut the hair. However, like the rocks, it's unbreakable. When Eugene arrives, an anxious Cassandra urges Rapunzel not to tell him about the hair, fearing he'll tell the king and queen, which would cost Cassandra her job. He discovers the hair regardless, but the three agree to keep it a secret from everyone else, including Rapunzel's parents. What Eugene still doesn't know, however, is how the hair came to grow again. Cassandra refuses to tell him, and when confronted about her behavior towards him, Eugene discovers that his unintentional selfishness in regards to Rapunzel is partially to blame.

At Rapunzel's coronation, the hair is kept hidden beneath a wig, only to be revealed when she needs to utilize it as a weapon to fight off a band of thieves. While Rapunzel and Eugene fight off the goons, Cassandra takes on their leader Lady Caine. Caine is defeated and arrested for her crimes, though Rapunzel is reprimanded by King Frederic for the hair, Cassandra's part in restoring it was left out by Rapunzel.

Tangled: The Series

Season One

Cassandra demanding that Varian keep their meeting a secret.

In the premiere episode, "What the Hair?!", a week has passed since the return of Rapunzel's hair, and Cassandra is dead set on ensuring her involvement remains a secret. Rapunzel feels increasingly guilty over keeping Eugene in the dark, but Cassandra reminds her that if the secret is revealed, she would lose her job and be sent to a convent as punishment. After Cassandra subsequently proves Eugene's inability to keep a secret, Rapunzel agrees, though not without apprehension. By the end of the day, Rapunzel finally reveals the truth to Eugene, though he promises to keep it between them for Cassandra's sake.

Meanwhile, Cassandra deals with issues of her own, particularly about her goal of becoming a guard, which proves to be difficult due to both her father's overprotective nature and the reception she receives from the public (who viewed Cassandra as a mere servant girl, incapable of anything more). In "Challenge of the Brave", Cassandra enters a challenge that tests the strength of its competitors to determine who is the mightiest warrior in all the seven kingdoms. She is shown as increasingly strong and capable, even sacrificing her win in the end to save Rapunzel and single-handedly take down the last competitor. Though technically she loses in the end to Rapunzel, she nevertheless earns praise for her strength and exceptional fighting skills. Later in "Great Expectations", the guard is low on staff due to the kingdom's science fair, forcing the Captain to entrust Cassandra with filling in for the day, on the condition that she finishes her chores first. Varian asks Cassandra to act as his assistant during his presentation, and she agrees in exchange for having Varian handle her chores. This allows her to take on guard duty, but after being assigned to guard the esteemed Dr. St. Croix, Cassandra abandons Varian during his presentation. As a result of not having a reliable assistant, Varian is disqualified. Cassandra apologizes for her behavior and offers her help when the experiments of the fair nearly destroy the castle. Proud of her actions, the Captain offers Cassandra another assignment as part of the guard, though she denies in favor of helping Varian clean up the mess.

Cassandra admiring her Medal of Honor.

Despite things ending on good terms, the Captain was not satisfied with her performance at the science fair. In "Under Raps", Cassandra discovered — what she believed to be — a potential villain with interest in an ancient journal that originally belonged to one of Corona's previous kings. Cassandra sees this as an opportunity to prove her competence to her father and invites the mysterious foreigner (named Andrew), to see the journal while it is open to the public. By manipulating him into believing she was in love with him, Cassandra discovers that Andrew is part of a separatist organization bent on destroying Corona. With some help from Rapunzel and Eugene, Cassandra manages to defeat Andrew and save the book. She is hailed as a hero for her efforts, receives a Medal of Honor, and becomes the talk of the kingdom, as a result.

Cassandra prepares to lead the assault against Varian.

By the time of "Secret of the Sun Drop", King Frederic has discovered that Cassandra was the one that leads Rapunzel over Corona's border wall and orders for her to be sent to a convent as punishment. Regretfully and with a heavy heart, the Captain abides by the king's decision, disappointing his daughter immensely. Before she can leave, however, the castle is attacked by a feral monstrosity sent by a now-villainous Varian. The Captain is injured during the attack, prompting Cassandra to take command of the guards in his place. Cassandra's bravery and competence earn her stay in the castle. Unfortunately, Queen Arianna had been kidnapped during the siege, prompting the King to issue an assault upon Varian. With the Captain wounded, Cassandra is chosen to assume his position and lead the assault, which she does confidently, with Eugene, Maximus, and Lance by her side.

Toward the end of the episode, Rapunzel defeats Varian and reconciles with her father. The rocks, meanwhile, form a path leading somewhere beyond Corona's walls, prompting Rapunzel to follow its trail.

Season Two

Cassandra accompanying Rapunzel's journey.

Cassandra joins Rapunzel on her journey—as does Eugene, Lance, Hook Foot, and Shorty, much to Cassandra's chagrin. According to "Beyond the Corona Walls", Cassandra made a promise to King Frederic that she'll keep Rapunzel safe on their journey, and keeps to her promise with her usual protective and callous nature. She also eventually meets her match with Adira, an eccentric, yet skilled warrior that introduces herself as a guide for Rapunzel and her allies, whom Cassandra quickly starts to dislike.

In "Rapunzel and the Great Tree", Cassandra, Rapunzel, and their friends stumble across the Great Tree. Upon getting inside of it, Adira reveals to the company that the tree once was a stronghold of the powerful dark sorcerer Zhan Tiri, thus making Cassandra even more suspicious about her. When she tries to tell Rapunzel to leave Adira, the princess refuses and tells Cassandra that she'll sometimes make decisions they won't always agree on, which makes the latter feel like she's waiting in the wings for Rapunzel and her friends.

Cassandra's hand gets burned by the power of reverse incantaion.

When the sinister warrior Hector attacks the company, Cassandra fights back and ultimately pushes him off the ledge. However, Hector comes back, possessed by the Heart of Zhan Tiri's tree. Despite Cassandra's protests, Rapunzel decides to use the reverse incantation, that she found before the attack, to destroy the vines holding Hector. At that moment Cassandra notices a magic spear and tries to convince Rapunzel to let her use it against the tree, but the incantation's power proves itself to be way too uncontrollable for the princess to stop using it. In an attempt to stop her, Cassandra touches Rapunzel's arm, but the incantation's destructive power severely burns her right arm, turning it pitch black. When everyone escaped from the falling tree, Cassandra finds a suit of armor and puts it on to protect her body from further pain. In the time following these events, Cassandra remains bitter, blaming Rapunzel for the events that transpired. Rapunzel tries to communicate with Cassandra about the tension between them, but the reserved Cassandra is hesitant to do so.

Cassandra, after merging with the Moonstone Opal.

In "Mirror, Mirror", a powerful storm forces the group to take shelter in a peculiar inn hosted by a man named Matthews. During their time there, Cassandra hears a mysterious voice calling her to a room that sucks her inside. When she escapes, the house has been destroyed, though Rapunzel and her friends are all safe. Rapunzel questions Cassandra on her absence, but she, upset by some reason, is quick to brush off any suspicion. Later, Rapunzel and Eugene can uncover the final piece of a scroll detailing Rapunzel's connection to the rocks with the help of Lord Demanitus. Before his departure, Demanitus warns Eugene that someone will betray Rapunzel before their journey comes to an end and Eugene notices Cassandra smiling sinisterly. Though Eugene has come to love Cassandra like an "annoying sister", he believes her to be the most likely candidate and warns Rapunzel about the matter in "Destinies Collide". Rapunzel believes Demanitus was wrong and continues forth to the Dark Kingdom, where she is destined to connect with the source of the black rocks (a life-killing opal) and restore balance to the world. Inside the Dark Kingdom's castle, Rapunzel, Eugene, and Cassandra approach the opal together. Before Rapunzel can touch it and fulfill her destiny, Cassandra grabs it, instead, declares that she's fulfilling her destiny and merges the opal with her body—magically altering her body, eyes and, hair. Once the alteration is over, Cassandra sinisterly tells Rapunzel that she should have been careful who she trusted.

Season Three

In the prologue of "Rapunzel's Return", it reveals what Cassandra had seen in the mysterious room she walked into at The House of Yesterday's Tomorrow during "Rapunzeltopia". There she met an enchanted girl who shows her younger self with her biological mother, who turns out to be Gothel, on the night that Gothel kidnapped Rapunzel, however, she and her child self watch in dismay as Gothel takes down the bridge to their house before she leaves Cassandra all on her own with the Royal guards while taking Rapunzel with her. Being reminded of her past had caused Cassandra to cry to herself as the spirit convinced her that she would always be overshadowed by Rapunzel, which would ultimately lead her to double-cross her in the Dark Kingdom.

Rapunzel tries to appeal to Cassandra during "Crossing the Line".

She angrily declares that Rapunzel's destiny belongs to her as Rapunzel asks her to let her help before she is ultimately confronted by Adira, easily repelling her, stealing her Shadow Blade, and fleeing the Moonstone Opal's chamber, with the Black Rocks covering her escape. Rapunzel chases after her in an attempt to convince her to come back, but Cassandra refuses to listen to reason and uses her stolen Shadow Blade to slice away the bridge of Black Rocks she created to make her getaway, leaving Rapunzel heartbroken over the thought that her best friend is now her newest enemy and later Cassandra, alongside Owl watch their former friends going back to Corona in hot air balloon.

The Enchanted Girl teaches Cassandra to use her fury towards her former friends.

At the end of "Return of the King", Cassandra is trying to harness the power of the Moonstone, but cannot make it work on the Black Rocks as she did earlier. Then she hears the familiar voice of the Enchanted Girl, who explains in "Who's Afraid of the Big, Bad Wolf?" that the Moonstone's powers tap into the anger and hatred of the user, and tells her to delve into the depths of her rage, reminding her of Rapunzel. Upon hearing this advice, Cassandra begins to learn to harness her new powers. In "Beginnings", when Cassandra finds an old painting of her and Rapunzel and begins to feel guilty about her betrayal to Rapunzel, the Enchanted Girl reveals when Rapunzel first touched the Black Rocks, the Moonstone granted a part of its power to her, causing her hair to become indestructible and protective to ensure she would be safe on her journey to the Dark Kingdom and reunite with the opal. With this revelation, Cassandra tears up the picture of her and Rapunzel, cementing her role as the Princess's newest enemy.

In "Be Very Afraid", Cassandra's fear towards the idea of destroying Rapunzel causes the Black rocks to turn into red rocks. Causing them to grow in Corona and reveal the citizens' worst fears, when Rapunzel touches one of the rocks at the same time as Cassandra they can sense each other. Rapunzel can tell that Cassandra is still good inside. Later Rapunzel reveals to a reformed Varian her biggest fear is losing Cassandra as a friend forever (along with the kingdom in ruins). At the end of the episode, she tells Eugene that there is still a chance to save her.

Cassandra lashes out at her father.

In "Islands Apart", it's revealed that she had fought with her adoptive father, the Captain of the Guards, and called him out for keeping her mother's identity a secret from her. She left him feeling guilty for his actions and he went to live on Terapi Island with a fake four-year-old Cassandra, which he wished for out of guilt. But the wish came at the price of having its magic turn against him by creating an army of Cassandras who attack Rapunzel and Eugene, who found him at the island. But, fortunately, Rapunzel convinced him to take back the wish and to not give up on the real Cassandra. Meanwhile, the real Cassandra, who has become paler and the Enchanted Girl went to the Great Tree to look for the incantation scrolls to help her learn how to harness the powers of both the Sun Drop and the Moonstone, only to find them destroyed. But when the Enchanted Girl mentions Demanitus' scroll as the other way to do it, Cassandra realizes that they have to return to Corona.

In "Cassandra's Revenge", Cassandra comes back to Corona and crashes Eugene's birthday party. Cassandra demands Rapunzel to give up the scroll and goes to find it in Varian's new lab. She even kidnaps Varian because he remembers the scroll and takes him to the site of Rapunzel's Tower, where she doses him with his own truth serum to force him to reveal her the third incantation, which she uses to build her own tower out of the black rocks and takes Varian as her prisoner and tells him that she doesn't want to hurt him and to not try anything foolish. Knowing that the path of destruction and rage won't get her anywhere, Varian tries to urge Cassandra to stop what she is doing, but she refuses to listen to him and ultimately traps Varian in a cage, pushing it away at the edge of her tower.

Cassandra attacks Rapunzel with all of her magical firepower.

Cassandra soon finds Pascal as he tries to sneak into her tower without being seen, but Rapunzel finds her with the question of whether Pascal is alright, and Cassandra gives him back to her. Rapunzel says she doesn't want to fight Cassandra since they're supposed to be friends, but Cassandra forces her to fight by threatening Eugene. During the battle, Rapunzel unleashes the incantation of the Sundrop's full power, which destroys Cassandra's tower and pushes her off, making her fall from her tower and forcing her to save herself with her powers. In the wake of the battle, Cassandra realizes that the Moonstone has been chipped, and then sees the Enchanted Girl has regained her normal form.

In "Race to the Spire", after rebuilding her fortress, Cassandra and Zhan Tiri headed over to the spire to get an item from Calliope. Although they got the item but failed to get the key due to Calliope sending it to Rapunzel, Cassandra and Zhan Tiri formed a plan to get the key from her. However, when Rapunzel realizes the ruse, Cassandra revealed herself. When the item was revealed to be the Mind-Trap stone, Cassandra and Zhan Tiri were able to get it when Rapunzel chose Calliope's safety as they took advantage of her compassion. After returning to her fortress, Cassandra used the Mind-Trap stone to control the Brotherhood of the Dark Kingdom.

Cassandra and Rapunzel briefly reconnect.

In "A Tale of Two Sisters", hearing rumors through Zhan Tiri about Gothel's ghost haunting her old cottage, Cassandra investigates her childhood home and saw Rapunzel there as well, and an angry Cassandra attacked her. While fighting, Cassandra and Rapunzel ended up in a mine when the cottage accidentally fell over. After making a temporary truce to work together to deal with the cave animals, Cassandra and Rapunzel notice Mother Gothel's old magic mirrors that she used to record herself flaunting about her beauty and forcing four-year-old Cassandra to do chores. Seeing this, Cassandra begins to question her mother's love for her. However, after escaping from being burned to death and when she and Rapunzel reconnect again, Cassandra notices one of her mother's mirrors in Rapunzel's bag, which was put there by Zhan Tiri in her attempts to keep their friendship broken. Believing her former friend lied to her when she sees the memory of being given the music box from her mother as a show of her love, Cassandra left Rapunzel to die in the mines. Just as she leaves, Cassandra ended up feeling guilty when Rapunzel pleaded for help but shook it off and continued to walk away. Cassandra returned to her fortress, under the belief that her mother loved her, unaware that Zhan Tiri stole a piece of her mother's mirror that shows that she saw her as a pest and only gave her the music box to keep her daughter away from her and threw it out to prevent her from making amends with Rapunzel.

Cassandra conquers Corona.

In "Once a Handmaiden. ", Cassandra was outside her fortress where she notices something shining. Realizing it's the missing piece from her mother's mirror, Cassandra puts the piece in the mirror and sees the full memory, discovering that Rapunzel was telling the truth about Mother Gothel not loving either of them when she sees that her mother only saw her as a pest. Cassandra confronts Zhan Tiri, after realizing that she tricked her into turning against the first friend she ever had. During the confrontation, Cassandra finds out who her mentor really is and leaves her fortress ashamed for her actions, especially when she sees a wanted poster of herself. After reuniting with Owl, Cassandra decides to sneak into Corona by using the magic cloak she stole from the Spire to impersonate Rapunzel's new handmaiden Faith to make things right with the Princess. At first it worked well, with Cassandra in disguise convincing the people of Corona to celebrate the goodwill festival, helping Rapunzel and Eugene to catch a gopher (which almost revealed her true identity to them with the gophers removing the cloak and Cassandra calling Rapunzel for her nickname) and finally with Cassandra portraying Rapunzel in a play which depicts her battle with the Princess, with her portraying Cassandra. During the good will festival at Corona, Cassandra was confronted by Zhan Tiri, who becomes more determined to make sure she doesn't reconcile with the Princess and to put her plan into action, as she tells her about Rapunzel authorizing a weapon that could be used against her, unaware that she did it out of protecting the kingdom and would only use it as a last resort. Despite being scared that Rapunzel wouldn't forgive her and not entirely convinced of Zhan Tiri's claim of the weapon she was talking about, Cassandra meets up with the Princess in her cloak disguise. However, Cassandra was revealed when Zhan Tiri, who made sure she wasn't seen by the two girls, removes the cloak in front of Rapunzel. Due to everyone seeing her as a threat, Cassandra couldn't explain to Rapunzel her reasons for coming into Corona. Cassandra fought off the guards but calmed down when Rapunzel pleads with her that it isn't too late to make things right. However, Cassandra believes that Rapunzel now sees her as a threat like everyone else when Zhan Tiri fires the weapon Varian was holding in order to trick her into taking over Corona for her. After knocking Rapunzel out and driving everyone out of the kingdom with the mind-controlled Brotherhood, Cassandra sits alone in the throne room, unaware that she helped Zhan Tiri put her plans into motion.

Cassandra leaves Corona to find her own destiny.

In the series finale "Plus Est En Vous", following her hostile takeover of Corona, Cassandra pays her former room in the castle a visit. Filled with rage, she proceeds to destroy everything that reminds her of Rapunzel and her old life as a handmaiden, although she left the picture and necklace in the room untouched. As the solar eclipse draws near, which goes as far as to weaken Rapunzel's power, Zhan Tiri tries to convince Cassandra to defeat Rapunzel and claim the Sundrop. Though Cassandra agrees to do so, she reveals that she no longer trusts Zhan Tiri, due to all of the times the demon has manipulated her, and imprisons her in a cage made of black rocks.

Once the people of Corona have infiltrated the castle, Cassandra personally confronts Rapunzel and Pascal in the castle halls. When Rapunzel refused to give up on her, Cassandra rebuffs it and attempts to kill her. The two engage in mortal combat, with Cassandra weaponizing vases and the black rocks against the princess. Just when it seems like Rapunzel has the upper hand, Cassandra turns her power into a weakness, and transports her to her room.

There, once the eclipse has finally come, Cassandra depowers Rapunzel and nearly obtains the Sundrop, only for Zhan Tiri, who escaped the cage using one of Varian's vials, to jump in and grab both the Sundrop and Moonstone. This causes Cassandra to lose her power as well, and she and Rapunzel watch Zhan Tiri transform into a huge demonic creature. Cassandra was mocked by Zhan Tiri for failing by her ego, like her mother was, and traps her and Rapunzel in a cage made of Sun rocks.

Imprisoned together, Cassandra finally regrets her actions in front of Rapunzel and apologizes to her. Hearing Rapunzel say the phrase "Plus est en vous", Cassandra regains her confidence and gives Rapunzel the chipped sliver of the Moonstone which enables her to free them from their prison. Afterwards, the two of them team up once more and are able to make the Sundrop and Moonstone collide, destroying Zhan Tiri. However, Cassandra dies in the resulting shockwave, that is until Rapunzel uses the Healing Incantation to revive her and everyone else, before sending the Sundrop and the Moonstone back to space. With peace restored, Cassandra embraces Rapunzel and Eugene.

After reconciling with her adoptive father and gaining a new green outfit, Cassandra bids farewell to Rapunzel and leaves Corona with Owl and Fidella, free to find her true destiny and to no longer be waiting in the wings.

Stay healthy without the hand sanitizer Thieves oil is a better- smelling way to keep germs at bay

We are knee deep into October, which means school and sports annual medical check ups. My son Lefty's pediatrician told me "children are little petri dishes of disease and stressed the importance of flu shoots and frequent and thorough hand washing as a defense against contagious illnesses.

A few years ago, my son's preschool went a bit overboard with hand sanitizing gel.

In response to the threat of swine and bird flu, as well as virulent MRSA virus, they set up wall mounted sanitizer dispensers at the front door and on every floor. Each classroom had a huge bottle of Purell on the teacher's desk. They referred to it as "Magic Soap."

Yes, it may kill germs, but a little piece of me died every time I heard my kid ask for "Magic Soap."

I appreciate hand cleanliness, especially within the population of school children who are tiny Typhoid Marys during the cold and flu season. But I felt my family was going overboard, using oceans of sanitizing gel and becoming dependent on these alcohol-based goops and sprays.

I looked around for alternative and hit the germ jackpot when I read about "thieves oil."

The apocryphal story of the slightly sinister name dates back to the Dark Ages. According to the legend, Thieves Oil was named after a band of thieves who were convicted of plundering the corpses of noblemen during the Black Plague. When the bandits were captured, the judge offered a lesser punishment if they told the court how they did not become victims of the highly contagious plague. They concocted an aromatic blend using the oils of clove, rosemary, cinnamon, lemon and eucalyptus. They rubbed this unctuous ointment into their skin and onto masks drenched in it over their mouths and noses.

I love that this clean smelling emollient has such a rich, dirty history.

Recent hospital and University studies say Thieves Oil is an effective microbial. You can find Blended Thieves Oil at Health Food Stores and online shops.

To create your own blend of Thieves Oil, you will need to start with 2/3 cup of a mild carrier oil, like jojoba, or almond oil.

List of Dickensian characters

This is a list of characters in the works of Charles Dickens.

  • Adams The top student David Copperfield's class at Dr Strong's school in Canterbury.
  • Aged Parent is the very old and very deaf father of John Wemmick in Great Expectations.
  • Allen, Arabella is the sister of Benjamin Allen, and eventually Mr Winkle's wife, in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Allen, Benjamin is a medical student and later a doctor in The Pickwick Papers. Brother of Arabella Allen.
  • Artful Dodger (alias Jack Dawkins) is a street-smart pickpocket and criminal in Oliver Twist.
  • Ayresleigh, Mr is a prisoner in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Avenger, The is a servant boy who was hired by Pip in Great Expectations. Pip has such a hard time finding things to keep him busy "that I sometimes sent him to Hyde Park Corner to see what o'clock it was."
  • Bachelor, The, is friend to the parson in the village church where Nell and her grandfather end their journey. He turns out to be the brother of Mr Garland and is instrumental in helping the Single Gentleman find his brother, Nell's grandfather, in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Badger, Bayham, is a doctor, cousin of Kenge, to whom Richard Carstone is apprenticed. Badger's wife Laura talks incessantly about her two former husbands, Captain Swosser and Professor Dingo, in Bleak House.
  • Bagman, The One-eyed, is a middle-aged story-teller in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Bagnet family, The A musical and military family headed by Matthew, an old army friend of George Rouncewell. Bagnet's wife, the old girl, knows Matthew so well that he always calls upon her to supply his opinion. The Bagnet children Quebec, Malta, and Woolwich are named after the military bases where the family has been stationed. Matthew is guarantor to George's loan from Smallweed, when Smallweed calls in the debt George is forced to deliver a document Smallweed needs to help lawyer Tulkinghorn learn Lady Dedlock's secret in Bleak House.
  • Bagstock, Major Joseph Neighbour of Miss Tox and friend of Paul Dombey who introduces Paul to Edith Granger and Mrs Skewton. The Major describes himself as "tough, Sir, tough, and de-vilish sly!" in Dombey and Son
  • Bamber, Jack is an old man whom Mr Pickwick meets in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Bantam, Angelo Cyrus is the Master of Ceremonies at a ball in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Barbara Modest and pretty servant of the Garlands. She befriends Kit when he is also employed by the Garlands. Barbara later marries Kit in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Barbary, Miss 'Godmother' who raises Esther Summerson. Later found to be Esther's aunt, the sister of Lady Dedlock in Bleak House.
  • Bardell, Martha is Mr Pickwick's landlady in The Pickwick Papers. After a misunderstanding which leads her to believe that Pickwick has proposed marriage to her, she starts a breach of promise action against him, encouraged by the unscrupulous attorneys Dodson and Fogg.
  • Bardell, Thomas is the son of Martha Bardell in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Barkis A carrier between Blunderstone and Yarmouth. He marries Clara Peggotty. Quote: "Barkis is willin'" is his proposal of marriage to her in David Copperfield
  • Barley, Old Bill Clara Barley's bedridden father, a retired ship's purser, who suffers with gout which he treats with an abundance of rum and pepper in Great Expectations.
  • Barley, Clara Herbert Pocket's fiancée, she cares for her invalid father, Old Bill Barley, in a waterside house at Mill Pond Bank where Magwitch is hidden. After her father's death she marries Herbert in Great Expectations.
  • Barnacle family, The Controls the Circumlocution Office, where everything goes round in circles, and nothing ever gets done. Includes Lord Decimus Tite Barnacle, his wife, Lady Jemima Bilberry, nephew Tite Barnacle, and his son Clarence Barnacle (Barnacle Junior) in Little Dorrit. William and Ferdinand Barnacle also appear. The family is allied by marriage with the Stiltstalkings.
  • Barsad, John (alias Solomon Pross) Barsad testifies against Charles Darnay at the treason trial at the Old Bailey. Later Barsad turns up as a spy in Paris and is found to be the brother of Miss Pross. Threatened with exposure, Barsad helps Sydney Carton exchange places with Charles Darnay in prison in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Bates, Charley Member of Fagin's band of thieves. Often referred to by Dickens as "Master Bates." He mends his ways after Fagin is captured in Oliver Twist.
  • Bazzard Clerk to Hiram Grewgious who writes an unproduced tragedy, The Thorn of Anxiety. Grewgious admits that Bazzard has a strange power over him in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Belle Scrooge's former fiancée who left him after his obsession with wealth eclipsed his love for her. She later marries another man and has many children, and is dismayed to learn from her husband on the eve of Jacob Marley's death that Scrooge has grown more cruel and selfish since she knew him. Scrooge had forgotten about her until reminded by the Ghost of Christmas Past in A Christmas Carol.
  • Benjamin Member of the 'Prentice Knights with Simon Tappertit in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Betsy (alias Bet), Prostitute and friend of Nancy. Goes mad after identifying Nancy's body in Oliver Twist.
  • Bevan, Mr Boston doctor whom Martin and Mark meet at Pawkins' Boarding House in New York and one of the few positive characters they meet in the America. Bevan later loans them money to return to England in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Biddy is Mr Wopsle's great-aunt's granddaughter in Great Expectations. She helps with running Mr Wopsle's great-aunt's evening school and general store until the woman passes away. Then she comes to live with Pip and the Gargerys to care for Mrs Joe, who lost the ability to speak after being attacked. "She was not beautiful--she was common, and could not be like Estella--but she was pleasant and wholesome and sweet-tempered. She had not been with us more than a year (I remember her being newly out of mourning at the time it struck me), when I observed to myself one evening that she had curiously thoughtful and attentive eyes eyes that were very pretty and very good." [1] Earlier in the novel she is Pip's friend and teaches him to read, but later in the novel they grow apart as Pip becomes a gentleman. Spurned by Pip, though he later realizes that he loves her, she marries Joe Gargery.
  • Bitzer A student in Gradgrind's school of hard facts. Later a light porter in Bounderby's bank in Hard Times.
  • Blackpool, Stephen A worker in Bounderby's mill. His wife is a drunk and he befriends Rachael. He falls out with his employer and leaves to look for work elsewhere. He is accused of robbing the bank and before his name is cleared he falls down a well and dies. Later he is cleared with the discovery that the robbery was committed by young Tom Gradgrind in Hard Times.
  • Blimber, Cornelia is a prim school-matron in Dombey & Son.
  • Boffin, Henrietta Noddy Boffin's wife in Our Mutual Friend.
  • Boffin, Noddy John Harmon's servant. When John's son is supposed drowned, Boffin and his wife inherit the Harmon fortune, in Our Mutual Friend.
  • Bounderby, Josiah Coketown Banker, mill owner, and 'self-made man' proud that he raised himself in the streets after being abandoned as a child. His story is exposed as a sham when Mrs Pegler, his loving mother whom he has discarded, is found. Bounderby marries his friend Gradgrind's daughter, Louisa, and later discards her in Hard Times.
  • Boythorn, Lawrence A former soldier and an old friend of John Jarndyce in Bleak House. He is very loud and harsh, but goodhearted, and always speaks in superlatives. He is a neighbour of Sir Leicester Dedlock, with whom he is engaged in an epic tangle of lawsuits over a right-of-way across Boythorn's property that Sir Leicester asserts the legal right to close. The character is based on Walter Savage Landor.
  • Brass, Sally Sister and partner of Quilp's unscrupulous attorney, Sampson Brass, in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Brass, Sampson "An attorney of no good repute" and "One of the greatest scoundrels unhung". Brass served as Daniel Quilp's lawyer. He helps Quilp get the Curiosity Shop from Nell's grandfather and when he tries to help Quilp frame Kit Nubbles he is undone with the help of his clerk Dick Swiveler and the Marchioness, his below-stairs maid in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Bray, Madeline Girl with whom Nicholas falls in love when he first sees her at an employment office. She cares for her selfish, invalid father who tries to sell her in marriage to Arthur Gride, assisted by Ralph Nickleby. Her father dies and the scheme is exposed. She marries Nicholas at the end of the story in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Bray, Walter Tyrannical father of Madeline. Heavily in debt, and living in the Rules of the King's Bench debtors' prison, he promises his daughter's hand in marriage to Arthur Gride in return for the forgiveness of his debt to Gride and Ralph Nickleby. He dies on the morning of the wedding thus saving Madeline from the unwanted marriage Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Brick, Jefferson War correspondent for the New York Rowdy Journal, edited by Colonel Diver in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Browdie, John Son of a small corn-factor. He gives money to Nicholas Nickleby on his escape from Dotheboys Hall. John marries Matilda Price. Later assists in Smike's escape from Squeers in London in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Brown, Good Mrs An ugly old rag and bone vendor and mother of Alice Marwood (Brown). She kidnaps Florence Dombey and steals her clothes. Later she helps Dombey find Carker and Edith after their elopement. Dickens describes Good Mrs Brown as a "very ugly old woman, with red rims round her eyes, and a mouth that mumbled and chattered of itself when she was not speaking" in Dombey and Son.
  • Brown, Alice (alias Marwood) Daughter of Good Mrs Brown and cousin of Edith Granger in Dombey and Son.
  • Brownlow, Mr Befriends Oliver after he is charged with pickpocketing. He later establishes Oliver's true identity and adopts him in Oliver Twist.
  • Bucket, Inspector is a policeman in Bleak House. He undertakes several investigations in the course of the novel, most notably the investigation of Mr Tulkinghorn's murder, which he brings to a successful conclusion.
  • Bud, Rosa Betrothed to Edwin Drood in childhood, they later agree that they cannot marry. Edwin disappears and John Jasper declares his love for Rosa. In terror she flees to London to her guardian, Grewgious. "The pet pupil of the Nuns' House is Miss Rosa Bud, of course called Rosebud wonderfully pretty, wonderfully childish, wonderfully whimsical. An awkward interest (awkward because romantic) attaches to Miss Bud in the minds of the young ladies, on account of its being known to them that a husband has been chosen for her by will and bequest, and that her guardian is bound down to bestow her on that husband when he comes of age" in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Bumble is the beadle of the parish that operates the work-house depicted in Oliver Twist.
  • Bunsby, Jack Sea-faring friend of Captain Cuttle who is always called in times of crisis for advice. The advice given confounds everyone listening except his friend Cuttle, who values it immensely. Bunsby is later trapped into marriage by Mrs MacStinger. Bunsby's ship is the Cautious Clara. Bunsby is described by Dickens as having "one stationary eye in the mahogany face, and one revolving one, on the principle of some lighthouses" in Dombey and Son.
  • Buzfuz, Serjeant a Barrister who represents Mrs Bardell in her suit against Samuel Pickwick. He bullies the witnesses into giving incriminating testimony and Pickwick is falsely convicted in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Camilla is one of the four "toadies and humbugs" who call on Mrs Havisham in Great Expectations. The four are family members of Miss Havisham's who visit on her birthday ostensibly out of concern for her, but really out of interest in her estate. [2]
  • Carker, Harriet Sister to James and John. Harriet lives with John and the two inherit James' fortune and donate it, anonymously, to Mr Dombey. Harriet later marries Mr Morfin in Dombey and Son.
  • Carker, James Opportunistic manager at Dombey and Son. Brother of John and Harriet Carker, he elopes with Dombey's wife and is later killed when struck by a train. Dickens describes Carker as "a gentleman thirty-eight or forty years old, of a florid complexion, and with two unbroken rows of glistening teeth, whose regularity and whiteness were quite distressing. It was impossible to escape the observation of them, for he showed them whenever he spoke and bore so wide a smile upon his countenance (a smile, however, very rarely, indeed, extending beyond his mouth), that there was something in it like the snarl of a cat."
  • Carker, John Older brother of James although called 'the Junior' because of his low position at the firm of Dombey and Son. He is looked upon with scorn by his younger brother because he embezzled money from the firm when a young man. Harriet Carker is his sister in Dombey and Son.
  • Carstone, Richard is a ward of Chancery in Bleak House. He tries to make his own way in the world - in medicine, law and soldiering - but the Jarndyce case becomes his obsession and eventually his ruin. He becomes engaged to, and later secretly marries, Ada Clare, the other ward.
  • Carton, Sydney is a lawyer in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Casby, Christopher is often described as the Patriarch. Landlord of Bleeding Heart Yard in Little Dorrit.
  • Cavalletto, John Baptist Small time Italian smuggler and Rigaud's fellow prisoner at the start of Little Dorrit. Later employed by Arthur Clennam in Bleeding Heart Yard after being injured in a mail coach accident, and helps in the search for Rigaud.
  • Chadband, Reverend Hypocritical clergyman, admonishing Jo in the spirit while Jo starves. Marries the former Mrs Rachael in Bleak House.
  • Cheeryble Brothers Charles and Edwin (Ned). Benevolent businessmen who employ and befriend Nicholas Nickleby and his family. Frank Cheeryble, who marries Kate Nickleby, is their nephew in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Cheeryble, Frank Nephew of the Cheeryble brothers who marries Kate Nickleby in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Chester, Edward Son of John, eventually overcomes the opposition of his father and her uncle and marries Emma Haredale. The couple relocate to the West Indies in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Chester, John Father of Edward, tries to prevent Edward's marriage to Emma Haredale. Becomes a member of Parliament. Killed in a duel by Emma's uncle Geoffrey in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Chick, Louisa Sister of Paul Dombey Sr and friend to Mrs Tox in Dombey and Son. Quote: "Make an effort".
  • Chickenstalker, Anne A stout lady who keeps a shop in the general line to whom Trotty owes some small debts. In Trotty's dream she marries Tugby and is Meg's landlady in The Chimes.
  • Chivery, John is usually designated Young John in Little Dorrit.
  • Chivery, Mr and Mrs Parents of John. Mr Chivery is the turnkey of the Marshalsea Prison in Little Dorrit.
  • Chowser, Col. appears in Nicholas Nickleby. A gambling, villainous sycophant of Sir Mulberry Hawk.
  • Chuzzlewit, Anthony Brother of old Martin Chuzzlewit and father of Jonas Chuzzlewit. Greedy and tight-fisted business man who breeds these same qualities into his son, Jonas, who tries to poison him for his trouble in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Chuzzlewit, Jonas Son of Anthony Chuzzlewit, he attempts to kill his father to gain his inheritance. Marries Mercy Pecksniff and, through his cruelty, breaks her spirit. He murders Tigg, the murder is discovered, and on the way to prison poisons himself in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Chuzzlewit, Martin Grandson of Martin Sr. He has a falling out with his grandfather over his love for Mary Graham. Becomes a pupil of Pecksniff who, because of pressure from the grandfather, throws young Martin out. After a trip to America with Mark Tapley, he comes back to England and, after the undoing of Pecksniff, reconciles with his grandfather and marries Mary Graham in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Chuzzlewit, Old Martin Grandfather of Martin, cousin of Pecksniff, brother of Anthony, uncle of Jonas. Martin is suspicious of his hypocritical close relatives, chiefly Pecksniff, whose hypocrisy Martin exposes and is reconciled with his grandson, young Martin in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Clare, Ada A ward of Chancery in Jarndyce and Jarndyce, in Bleak House. She falls in love with Richard Carstone, another ward, who is a distant cousin. She does not share his fervent hopes for a quick settlement in the Jarndyce case. They later marry in secret.
  • Claypole, Noah appears in Oliver Twist as an assistant at Sowerberry's with whom Oliver fights. He later joins Fagin's gang.
  • Clennam, Arthur Protagonist in Little Dorrit.
  • Clennam, Mrs Mother of Arthur Clennam in Little Dorrit.
  • Compeyson is the debonair con man at the heart of much misery in Great Expectations. Partnering with Miss Havisham's half brother Arthur, he pretends to woo Miss Havisham while extorting money and title to her father's brewing business from her. He uses Abel Magwitch in a bank note forging scheme, then uses his class standing and powers of persuasion to evade the heavy sentence handed to Magwitch. Escaping from a prison ship, Magwitch attempts to murder Compeyson on the marsh where they are discovered by Pip. Later, Compeyson uses Orlick to hunt down Magwitch when he enters England under the false identity of Provis. [3]
  • Copperfield, Clara Mother of David Copperfield. A widow when David is born, she later is lured into marriage by Edward Murdstone, who destroys her spirit and she dies along with her newborn son while David is away at school in David Copperfield.
  • Copperfield, David Narrator of the story modelled after Dickens's life. Begins life with his widowed mother and their maid, Peggotty. When his mother marries Mr Murdstone his life becomes miserable. He is sent to Creakle's school where he meets Steerforth and Traddles. After the death of his mother he goes to work at Murdstone and Grinby and is lodged with the Micawbers. David runs away to live with his aunt Betsy Trotwood in Dover. He later marries his employer Spenlow's daughter, Dora. Dora dies and David marries longtime friend, Agnes Wickfield. David, like Dickens, becomes a successful author in David Copperfield.
  • Corney, Mrs Matron of the work-house where Oliver is born. She marries Bumble making him miserable. The Bumbles are disgraced and end up as paupers in the work-house they once ruled over in Oliver Twist.
  • Cousin Raymond is Camilla's self-interested husband who calls on Miss Havisham in hopes of sharing in her estate in Great Expectations. [4]
  • Cratchit, Bob Longsuffering clerk of Ebenezer Scrooge. Bob endures Scrooge's mistreatment until Scrooge, reformed by the visit of the three spirits, raises Bob's salary and vows to help his struggling family. The Cratchit family consists of Bob's wife, eldest daughter Martha, daughter Belinda, son Peter, two younger children: boy and girl, and Tiny Tim in A Christmas Carol.
  • Cratchit, Tiny Tim Crippled son of Bob Cratchit. The forecast of Tim's death by the Ghosts of Christmas Present and Future is instrumental in Scrooge's reformation after which Tim is afforded proper medical attention and is cured in A Christmas Carol. Dickens based Tiny Tim (and also Paul Dombey Jr) on his sister Fanny's crippled son Henry Burnett Jr.
  • Creakle Severe headmaster of Salem House Academy where David first goes to school. He was based on William Jones, headmaster of Wellington Academy which Dickens attended from 1825 to 1827 in David Copperfield.
  • Crewler, Sophy Fiancée of Traddles and "the dearest girl in the world". Traddles has trouble gaining permission to marry Sophy because she is indispensable to her large family in David Copperfield.
  • Crimple, David (Crimp) Pawnbroker (Crimp) and later partner with Tigg Montigue in the Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company. After Montigue is murdered he flees the country with the company's money in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Cripples, Mr Operates Cripples's Evening Academy in the same lodging house where Frederick Dorrit lives. Amy Dorrit attended classes there in Little Dorrit. His son, Master Cripples, is also a character.
  • Crisparkle, Canon Minor canon of Cloisterham Cathedral. "Mr Crisparkle, Minor Canon, early riser, musical, classical, cheerful, kind, good-natured, social, contented, and boy-like." He takes Neville Landless as a pupil and helps Neville flee to London when suspicion is cast on him for the disappearance of Edwin Drood in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Crummles, Mrs is the wife of Mr Crummles and a gracious lady of the theatre in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Crummles, Vincent is Head of the Crummles theatre troupe in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Cruncher, Jerry is the porter at Tellson's Bank in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Cruncher, Mrs, the wife of Jerry Cruncher, whom he beats for 'flopping' (praying) in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Cuttle, Captain a Seafaring friend of Sol Gills, whose shop he cares for when Sol goes in search of his lost nephew, Walter Gay. Quote: When found, make a note of. Dickens describes Captain Cuttle as "a gentleman in a wide suit of blue, with a hook instead of a hand attached to his right wrist very bushy black eyebrows and a thick stick in his left hand, covered all over (like his nose) with knobs. He wore a loose black silk handkerchief round his neck, and such a very large coarse shirt collar, that it looked like a small sail in Dombey and Son.
  • Daisy, Solomon Clerk and bell-ringer at the parish church in Chigwell. Friend of John Willet at the Maypole Inn. Daisy tells the story of Reuben Haredale's murder in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Darnay, Charles Son of Marquis de St Evremonde. He is tried for treason in London and is acquitted due to his resemblance to Sydney Carton. He marries Lucie Manette, daughter of Dr Manette. He returns to Paris to help a friend imprisoned there and is arrested by the revolutionaries. His life is saved when look-alike Carton takes his place on the guillotine in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Dartle, Rosa Companion to Mrs Steerforth, jealously in love with Steerforth, who marked her face when he was a child by throwing a hammer in a fit of temper. Rosa hates Emily for running away with Steerforth. Narrator David Copperfield describes Rosa as "A slight short figure, dark, and not agreeable to look at, but with some appearance of good looks too. I concluded in my own mind that she was about thirty years of age, and that she wished to be married. She was a little dilapidated, like a house, with having been so long to let yet had, as I have said, an appearance of good looks. Her thinness seemed to be the effect of some wasting fire within her, which found a vent in her gaunt eyes." in David Copperfield.
  • Datchery, Dick Mysterious visitor to Cloisterham whose "white head was unusually large, and his shock of white hair was unusually thick and ample." Datchery keeps an eye on John Jasper after the disappearance of Edwin Drood. The true identity of Datchery is one of the most contested points of the uncompleted mystery. It is widely believed that Datchery is one of the characters in the book in disguise, most likely candidates include Neville, Bazzard, Tartar, Helena, or even Edwin Drood himself in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Dawkins, Jack Also known as the Artful Dodger, he is the most successful and interesting of Fagin's thieves. He shows Oliver the ropes of the pickpocket game and is later captured and sentenced to transportation in Oliver Twist.
  • Dedlock, Lady Honoria the haughty mistress of Chesney Wold in Bleak House. Her past drives much of the plot as it turns out that, before her marriage, she had an affair with another man and had his child. She discovers the child's identity (Esther Summerson) and, because she has made this discovery and revealed that she had a secret predating her marriage, she has attracted the noxious curiosity of Mr Tulkinghorn, who feels himself bound by his ties to his client, Sir Leicester, to pry out her secret and use it to control her. At the end, she dies, disgraced in her own mind and convinced that her aristocratic husband can never forgive her moral failings, even though he has already done so.
  • Dedlock, Sir Leicester a crusty baronet in Bleak House, very much older than his wife. Dedlock is an unthinking conservative who regards the Jarndyce and Jarndyce lawsuit in which his wife is entangled as a mark of distinction worthy of a man of his family lineage.
  • Dedlock, Volumnia Poor relation of Sir Leicester Dedlock. 'Rouged and necklaced' hanger-on at Chesney Wold in Bleak House.
  • Defarge, Ernest Husband of Madame Defarge and keeper of a wine shop in Paris. He is a leader among the revolutionaries in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Defarge, Madame Wife of wine shop keeper, Ernest Defarge, and a leader among the revolutionaries. She harbours an intense hatred of Charles Darnay for atrocities committed against her family by the Evremonde family. Madame Defarge is killed in a struggle with Miss Pross in Paris in A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Dennis, Ned is the Executioner at Tyburn, becomes involved in the Gordon Riots and is executed in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Deputy (Winks) Boy hired by Durdles to throw stones at him when he is wandering drunk at night. "Sometimes the stones hit him, and sometimes they miss him, but Durdles seems indifferent to either fortune. The hideous small boy, on the contrary, whenever he hits Durdles, blows a whistle of triumph through a jagged gap, convenient for the purpose, in the front of his mouth, where half his teeth are wanting and whenever he misses him, yelps out 'Mulled agin!' and tries to atone for the failure by taking a more correct and vicious aim." Deputy resides at the Travellers' Twopenny in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Dick (Young Dick) is a friend of Oliver in Oliver Twist. He grew up with him in the parish farm run by Mrs Mann.
  • Dick, Mr An eccentric lodger at Betsy Trotwood's and friend of David Copperfield. whose real name is Richard Babley in David Copperfield.
  • Dilber, Mrs Scrooge's charwoman who sells his bed linen and curtains to Old Joe when Scrooge is shown shadows of the future by the Ghost of Christmas Future in A Christmas Carol.
  • Diver, Colonel Editor of the New York Rowdy Journal. Diver meets Mark and Martin on board the Screw and directs them to Pawkins boarding house in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Dodson and Fogg Sharp dealing lawyers who dupe Mrs Bardell into bringing a breach of promise to marry suit against Samuel Pickwick in Pickwick Papers .
  • Dolls, Mr is the drunken father of Jenny Wren whom she refers to as her 'bad child' in Our Mutual Friend.
  • Dombey, Fanny First wife of Paul Dombey and mother of Florence and Paul Jr at whose birth she dies in Dombey and Son.
  • Dombey, Florence Neglected daughter of Paul Dombey and sister of little Paul whom she nurses in his illness. She marries Walter Gay and is eventually reconciled with her father in Dombey and Son.
  • Dombey, Paul Powerful head of the House of Dombey. He wants a son, and when a daughter (Florence) is born he despises her. His second child, a son (also Paul), is weak and sickly and dies a child. Paul's first wife dies with the birth of Paul Jr and he remarries. His second wife, Edith Granger, does not love him and eventually runs away with Carker, a manager at the firm. With Carker gone, Paul is incapable of managing the business and it fails. Paul ends his days reconciled with his daughter and doting on his grandchildren, little Paul, but especially little Florence in Dombey and Son..
  • Dombey, Paul Jr The long hoped-for heir to the house of Dombey and Son. His mother dies at his birth leaving him a frail and sickly child. His father sends him to Brighton in the care of Mrs Pipchin hoping the sea air will bolster his failing health. He then attends Dr Blimber's school and his health continues to decline. Paul returns home to London and dies in the care of his sister, Florence, leaving the firm of Dombey and Son without an heir. Dickens modeled Paul (and also Tiny Tim) on his sister Fanny's crippled son Henry Burnett Jr in Dombey and Son..
  • Dorrit, Amy Commonly called "Little Dorrit." Daughter of William Dorrit, born in the Marshalsea debtors' prison. She works for Mrs Clennam and befriends Arthur. Her father inherits a fortune and they leave the prison and travel abroad. After her father's death she discovers that the fortune has been lost in a banking scam. She nurses Arthur in the Marshalsea when his fortune is lost in the same banking scam. The novel ends with the marriage of Arthur and Amy at St George's Church, next to the prison, the same church where she was christened.Little Dorrit.
  • Dorrit, Edward (Tip) Ne'er-do-well brother of Amy Dorrit in Little Dorrit.
  • Dorrit, Fanny Sister of Amy. A dancer with social aspirations, Fanny marries Edmund Sparkler, Stepson of Mr Merdle. Fanny and Sparkler lose everything in the Merdle banking scam in Little Dorrit.
  • Dorrit, Frederick Brother of William, Uncle of Fanny, Edward, and Amy. He plays clarionet in a small-time theatre. He is due an inheritance but the knowledge is kept from him by the intrigues of Mrs Clennam in Little Dorrit.
  • Dorrit, William Father of Amy (title character), Fanny, and Edward, and long-time inmate of the Marshalsea debtors' prison. He inherits an estate and leaves the prison, traveling in style with his daughters. After his death Amy learns that his fortune has been lost in the Merdle banking scam in Little Dorrit.
  • Doyce, Daniel Inventor of an unspecified mechanical wonder which he is unable to get a patent for in the Circumlocution Office. He partners with Arthur Clennam who loses the firm's money in the Merdle scandal. Doyce later sells the invention abroad and returns to liberate Arthur from the Marshalsea in Little Dorrit.
  • Drood, Edwin An orphan, Edwin has been promised to Rosa Bud since early childhood. Later Edwin and Rosa rebel against the arrangement. Rosa is also wooed by Edwin's uncle John Jasper. Edwin turns up missing and his watch is found in the river. Jasper hints suspicion of Neville Landless in the disappearance when the novel ends abruptly with the death of Dickens in 1870 in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Drummle, Bentley is Pip's fellow student at Matthew Pocket's and rival for Estella's affections. "Bentley Drummle, who was so sulky a fellow that he even took up a book as if its writer had done him an injury, did not take up an acquaintance in a more agreeable spirit. Heavy in figure, movement, and comprehension--in the sluggish complexion of his face, and in the awkward tongue that seemed to loll about in his mouth as he himself lolled about in a room--he was idle, proud, niggardly, reserved and suspicious." [5] He marries Estella for her money and abuses her. He is killed when kicked by a horse that he has mistreated in Great Expectations.
  • Duff A Bow Street Runner who, along with Blathers, investigates the attempted robbery of the Maylie home in Oliver Twist.
  • Durdles Drunken stonemason who engraves tombstones for Cloisterham Cathedral. John Jasper is interested in Durdles ability to tap on the tombs and discover their contents. Durdles hires Deputy to throw stones at him when he catches him wandering about drunk at night. "No man is better known in Cloisterham. He is the chartered libertine of the place. Fame trumpets him a wonderful workman - which, for aught that anybody knows, he may be (as he never works) and a wonderful sot - which everybody knows he is." in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Fagin is the leader of a group of pickpockets in Oliver Twist
  • Fan Scrooge's sister in A Christmas Carol, mother of his nephew Fred. She has died before the story begins but lives again in the 'shadows' shown to Scrooge by the Ghost of Christmas Past. She is based on Dickens' own sister Fanny who died of consumption at age 38.
  • Feeder, Mr The assistant to Dr Blimber in Dombey and Son, at the school in Brighton which the younger Paul Dombey attends. Later marries Blimber's daughter Cornelia and takes over the management of the school.
  • Fezziwig, Mr hosts a Christmas party that Scrooge visits with the Ghost of Christmas past in A Christmas Carol. Scrooge is reminded of what a kind, generous man 'Old Fezziwig' was. Fezziwig was a very happy man with three daughters. Fezziwig wore a powdered wig and a waistcoat.
  • Fielding, May a friend to Mrs Peerybingle, marries Edward Plummer in The Cricket on the Hearth.
  • Fielding, Mrs May's mother a little, peevish, querulous old lady in The Cricket on the Hearth.
  • Finching, Flora was the love of Arthur Clennam's youth in Little Dorrit. She is now a garrulous but good-hearted middle-aged woman with a drinking problem.
  • Finching's Aunt, not known by any other name than "Mr F.'s Aunt," takes an unaccountable dislike to Arthur Clennam in Little Dorrit.
  • Fizkin, Horatio the 'Buff' candidate in the Eatanswill by-election, in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Flasher, Wilkins, Esquire is the stock broker who assisted the elder Mr Weller to sell his stock in The Pickwick Papers.
  • Flintwinch, Affery servant in the Clennam household and wife of Jeremiah Flintwinch in Little Dorrit.
  • Flintwinch, Jeremiah servant in the Clennam household and husband of Affery Flintwinch in Little Dorrit. His brother Ephraim has a very minor role.
  • Flite, Miss is the female tenant of Krook's Bottle Shop in Bleak House, obsessive about her case in Chancery, the length and complexity of which has unhinged her.
  • Fred the good-hearted nephew of Ebenezer Scrooge, son of his sister Fan in A Christmas Carol.
  • Gamp, Sarah or Sairey is a nurse in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Gargery, Biddy see Biddy above
  • Gargery, Joe is Pip's "best friend" and care-giver, an illiterate blacksmith who tolerates his wife's abuse in Great Expectations. Pip is raised in the expectation that he will be apprenticed to Joe and take over the family forge. "Joe was a fair man, with curls of flaxen hair on each side of his smooth face, and with eyes of such a very undecided blue that they seemed to have somehow got mixed with their own whites. He was a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow--a sort of Hercules in strength, and also in weakness." [6]
  • Gargery, Mrs Joe is Pip's sister, who at "more than twenty years older" cares for Pip after the death of their parents in Great Expectations. She is a harsh caregiver who is later attacked by Orlick and left bedridden and mute until her death. "My sister, Mrs Joe, with black hair and eyes, had such a prevailing redness of skin that I sometimes used to wonder whether it was possible she washed herself with a nutmeg-grater instead of soap. She was tall, and bony, and almost always wore a coarse apron, fastened over her figure behind with two loops, and having a square impregnable bib in front, that was stuck full of pins and needles." [7]
  • Gargery, Pip young son of Joe and Biddy Gargery at the end of Great Expectations. He is named for Philip Pirrip.
  • Garland, Abel Son of Mr and Mrs Garland he resembles Mr Garland in face and figure. Abel is apprenticed to the notary Mr Witherden in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Garland, Mr and Mrs Kindly plump couple, parents of Abel, who befriend and hire Kit. They, along with Mr Witherden and the Single Gentleman, are instrumental in clearing Kit of false charges made by Brass in The Old Curiosity Shop.
  • Gay, Walter is Sol Gill's nephew, he is employed in the house of Dombey and Son. Walter befriends Florence Dombey, her father is displeased and sends him to the firm's branch in Barbados. The ship in which he sails is lost and Sol goes to search for him. Walter returns and marries Florence. Mr Dombey, after the failure of the house, goes to live with Walter and Florence.
  • General, Mrs Traveling companion of the Dorrits in Little Dorrit.
  • George, Mr A former soldier, serving under Nemo, who owns a London shooting-gallery in Bleak House. He is a trainer in sword and pistol use, briefly training Richard Carstone. The prime suspect in the death of Mr Tulkinghorn, he is exonerated and his true identity is revealed, against his wishes. He is found to be George Rouncewell, son of the Dedlocks' housekeeper, Mrs Rouncewell, who welcomes him back to Chesney Wold. He ends the book as the body-servant to the stricken Sir Leicester Dedlock.
  • Ghost of Christmas Future, The shows Scrooge the demise of Tiny Tim and of himself, leading to Scrooge's reformation in A Christmas Carol.
  • Ghost of Christmas Past, The shows Scrooge his lonely and difficult childhood and gradual decline into the miser he will become in A Christmas Carol.
  • Ghost of Christmas Present, The shows Scrooge the joy that Christmas brings, both at the poor household of the Cratchits and at the home of his nephew Fred. The ghost also introduces Scrooge to the children, Ignorance and Want in A Christmas Carol.
  • Giles, Mr Butler / steward of the Maylie household in Oliver Twist. [8]
  • Gowan, Henry Amateur artist in Little Dorrit.
  • Gowan, Minnie Daughter of Mr and Mrs Meagles, almost always called Pet in Little Dorrit.
  • Gradgrind, Thomas A mill owner retired from business and father of Louisa and Tom. He runs a school and emphasises the importance of facts and figures over fancy to his students and his children. By the end of the story he learns that facts and figures must be tempered by love and forbearance in Hard Times.
  • Gradgrind, Tom Son of Thomas. He is employed at Bounderby's bank from whom he later steals, the blame is set on Stephen Blackpool. He later leaves the country with the aid of Sleary and his circus troupe in Hard Times.
  • Graham, Mary Cares for old Martin Chuzzlewit, knowing that she will not profit from Martin's wealth after his death. Chuzzlewit's grandson, Martin, falls in love with Mary which displeases his grandfather who disinherits young Martin. Young Martin goes to America to seek his fortune. Finding only sickness and misery in America, Martin returns to England, is reconciled with his grandfather and marries Mary in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Grainger Friend of Steerforth's who has dinner with David at his chambers at the Adelphi in David Copperfield.
  • Granger, Edith Paul Dombey's second wife is the widow of Colonel Granger and the daughter of Mrs Skewton. She marries Dombey but does not love him. She later elopes with Carker, a manager at Dombey's firm, to punish her husband in Dombey and Son.
  • Grayper, Mr and Mrs Neighbours of Clara Copperfield in Blunderstone in David Copperfield.
  • Grewgious Guardian of Rosa Bud. He is upset at John Jasper's advances to Rosa and finds her lodging in London at an apartment owned by Mrs Billickin. He later investigates the disappearance of Edwin Drood and is suspicious of Jasper. Described as 'an angular man with no conversational powers'. in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.
  • Gride, Arthur Old money-lender who develops a scheme, along with fellow usurer, Ralph Nickleby, to get Walter Bray's consent to give his daughter, Madeline's, hand for the forgiveness of debts to Gride and Ralph. Gride's plan is undone when Bray dies on the morning of the wedding and his old housekeeper, Peg Sliderskew, jealous of the young wife, steals documents that reveal his scheme. Gride is murdered by burglars before he can be prosecuted in Nicholas Nickleby.
  • Gridley Known as the 'Man from Shropshire' and an involuntary party to a suit in Chancery in Bleak House. He repeatedly seeks to gain the attention of the Lord Chancellor, but in vain. Frustrated, he threatens Mr Tulkinghorn and then is put under arrest by Inspector Bucket. He dies, his health broken by his Chancery ordeal. His story is based on a real case, according to Dickens's preface. The case was that of Thomas Jones Wilkinson who fought for eleven years to try to wrestle control of the John Wilkinson Iron Empire from the bands of John Wilkinson's illegitimate, but recognised heir John Wilkinson (junior). [9]
  • Grimwig, Mr Cantankerous friend of Mr Brownlow in Oliver Twist. Quote: "I'll eat my head!"
  • Grueby, John Loyal servant of Lord George Gordon who tries to isolate Gordon from the rioters when the protest turns to violence in Barnaby Rudge.
  • Gulpidge, Mr and Mrs Guests at a dinner party given by the Waterbrooks in David Copperfield.
  • Gummidge, Mrs Widow of Mr Peggotty's former partner, who had died very poor. She lives with Mr Peggotty and later emigrates to Australia with him. Quote: 'a lone lorn creetur' and everything went contrary with her' in David Copperfield.
  • Guppy, William Clerk for Kenge and Carboy. He proposes marriage to Esther Summerson, which she refuses. Guppy is involved in the investigation of Lady Dedlock's secret in Bleak House, knowing that Krook has a packet of letters somehow connected to her. These pass to Smallweed on Krook's death, but Guppy is still unable to acquire them for Lady Dedlock.
  • Handford, Julius Name adopted by John Harmon on arrival in London immediately after his supposed drowning in Our Mutual Friend.
  • Harmon, John Son of a wealthy dust contractor and heir to his fortune if he agrees to marry Bella Wilfer. He is away from England when his father dies and on the way home he is supposed drowned in a case of mistaken identity. With his supposed death the dust fortune goes to Boffin. John gets himself hired into the Boffin home as secretary John Rokesmith. Here he meets Bella and, with the help of the Boffins, wins her love as Rokesmith, and marries her. He later reveals his true identity and regains his fortune in Our Mutual Friend.
  • Harris, Mrs Imaginary friend of Sairey Gamp who uses Mrs Harris's invented quotes to establish Mrs Gamp's good reputation in Martin Chuzzlewit.
  • Harthouse, James A Parliamentary candidate visiting Coketown, he befriends Tom Gradgrind in an attempt to seduce his sister, Louisa, who is in an unhappy marriage to Bounderby. As a result of the attempted seduction Louisa runs home to her father and refuses to return to Bounderby and is later disowned by him in Hard Times.
  • Havisham, Estella is adopted by Miss Havisham in Great Expectations. Pip falls in love with her, she spurns him, but after several years they meet and vow to remain together.
  • Havisham, Arthur Miss Havisham's drunken brother who plots with Compeyson to gain his sister's fortune in Great Expectations.
  • Havisham, Miss is the ghastly guardian of Estella at Satis House, who on a "sick fancy" invites Pip, via Mr Pumblechook, to come play cards. Now aged, her heart was broken in her youth, when on the day of their wedding her bridegroom, Compeyson (a conman), broke off their engagement. Miss Havisham lives as a recluse as if time stopped the moment her heart broke:

"She was dressed in rich materials--satins, and lace, and silks--all white. Her shoes were white. And she had a long white veil dependent from her hair, and she had bridal flowers in her hair, but her hair was white. I saw that everything within my view which ought to be white, had been white long ago, and had lost its lustre, and was faded and yellow. I saw that the bride within the bridal dress had withered like the dress, and like the flowers, and had no brightness left but the brightness of her sunken eyes. I saw that the dress had been put upon the rounded figure of a young woman, and that the figure upon which it now hung loose, had shrunk to skin and bone. Once, I had been taken to see some ghastly wax-work at the Fair. Once, I had been taken to one of our old marsh churches to see a skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress, that had been dug out of a vault under the church pavement. Now, wax-work and skeleton seemed to have dark eyes that moved and looked at me. I should have cried out, if I could." [10]

Miss Havisham teaches Estella to deny any emotions which could leave her vulnerable to heartbreak and uses Pip for Estella to practice on. She wants to see Estella break men's hearts to avenge her own broken heart from being left at the altar by Compeyson years before. Pip mistakenly believes Miss Havisham intends him for Estella and is his secret benefactor as he goes to London and becomes a gentleman, finding out later that the convict Magwitch has supplied his 'Expectations'. Miss Havisham dies when her house burns down and leaves her fortune to Estella in Great Expectations.

AnUnexpected Pairing

When Dave Matthews and Sean McKenzie first met, they realized they had a few things in common, like a passion for making wine at least as strong as their passion for drinking it.

They set out into wine country, looking for a way to make quality wines accessible to everyone. Along the way, they found inspiration in the down-to-earth characters and unforgettable flavors that give the region its rare kind of charm.

Recipes from the Road

Inspired by the local ingredients of each of Dave Matthews' tour stops, Chef Fiona Bohane prepares meals perfectly paired for our wines – from pecan crusted white fish in Charleston, NC to Mojo Braised Pork Shoulder in Berkeley, CA. Check out Chef Fiona's favorite recipes with their wine pairing and make some of Dave's favorite dishes at home.

The Dreaming Tree takes Gold at the San Francisco International Wine Competition!

We’re pleased to share the results of the San Francisco International Wine Competition. Congratulations on these exciting scores!

Dave Matthews Live from his living room!

The perfect way to close out the Verizon #PayItForwardLIVE streaming series. Dave Matthews will be playing the last show the same way he played the first: live from his living room!

Live Virtual Tasting with Dave & Sean!

Sit back, relax, and enjoy your favorite The Dreaming Tree wines with Dave Matthews and winemaker Sean McKenzie.


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Parental Advisory Forever: An Oral History of the PMRC's War on Dirty Lyrics

Thirty years ago, the music industry changed forever in the midst of the Parents Music Resource Center's fight to identify and label explicit lyrics.

The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) formed in 1984 around the collective outrage of four women known for their ties to Washington political life. Founding members Susan Baker (wife of then-Treasury Secretary James Baker), Tipper Gore (wife of senator and future Vice President Al Gore), Pam Howar (wife of Realtor Raymond Howar) and Sally Nevius (wife of Washington City Council Chairman John Nevius) had become disturbed by Prince, Madonna and other music their kids were listening to. And on September 19, 1985, the culture wars came to a head in a "porn rock" Senate hearing featuring testimony from John Denver, Dee Snider and Frank Zappa.

From this political fervor emerged the "Parental Advisory" sticker that probably dots your CD collection today. In this oral history, Susan Baker, Dee Snider, Gail Zappa, Sis Levin and others tell the inside story of how it happened&mdashand reflect on the 30 years that have gone by.

All of the material contained in this oral history was provided in the form of separate phone interviews with Newsweek, with three exceptions. Tipper Gore declined to be interviewed but did supply a statement through a representative. Cronos, of the metal band Venom, responded to interview questions via email. And the quotes attributed to the late Frank Zappa are from the artist's autobiography, The Real Frank Zappa Book. (The book was written in the late 1980s, hence the use of the present tense when referring to the then-active PMRC.)

Susan Baker, co-founder of the PMRC: It started because one day my 7-year-old came in and started quoting some of Madonna's lyrics to me, wanting to know what they meant. And I was shocked. I knew that you had to be concerned about movies and TV, but I didn't have a clue that my 7-year-old would be exposed to inappropriate songs.

Pam Howar, co-founder of the PMRC: I had a daughter. And anything delivered through music can be pretty powerful.

Susan Baker: It was "Like a Virgin." She [my daughter] said, "Mama, what's a virgin?" And I said, "What do you mean?" She said, "Well, Madonna sings this song: 'Like a virgin / Touched for the very first time.' What's a virgin?" I was speechless. Here she was still playing with dolls at 7.

Frank Zappa, musician and composer (in The Real Frank Zappa Book): There are several "historical accounts" from which to choose. Let's arbitrarily choose this one: One day in 1985, Tipper Gore, wife of the Democratic senator from Tennessee, bought her 8-year-old daughter a copy of the soundtrack album to Prince's Purple Rain&mdashan R-rated film which had already generated considerable controversy for its sexual content. For some reason, however, she was shocked when their daughter pointed out a reference to masturbation in a song called "Darling Nikki." Tipper rounded up a bunch of her Washington housewife friends, most of whom happened to be married to influential members of the U.S. Senate, and founded the PMRC.

Sis Levin, executive director of the PMRC: I did a doctorate in conflict resolution in nonviolence. Which I teach at the university level all over the place. The fit is that the music is a form of violence in our children.&hellip I took a desk and we had meetings and we talked about having opportunities to speak to the public. We would say, "Just listen to what they're listening to! And get a handle on it!" Because it does have an effect.

Susan Baker: We decided we would get together and get everybody on our address list and have a meeting and show them what we were upset about. Most of them didn't have a clue what was going on. That's how it started. We had no idea we were going to start an organization. We were just mad mamas who wanted our friends and, particularly, educators to know what kind of trash our children were buying. We felt we needed some information [in the form of] product labeling.

Kandie Stroud, journalist and PMRC spokeswoman who debated Frank Zappa on TV: We were a family completely saturated in music. I remember one time, one of my kids said, "Listen to this song, but don't listen to the lyrics, mom, you won't like them." Sure enough, it was some explicit song. I think it was something by Prince. I kind of looked into the topic and interviewed a bunch of different people in the music world. I thought, "Wow, it's really changed since the days of the Beatles and Elvis."

The PMRC set to work compiling contacts from their respective Christmas card lists and issuing press releases. The group sent a letter to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and more than 50 record labels. According to A History of Evil in Popular Culture, "The letter proposed that record companies either cease the production of music with violent and sexually charged lyrics or develop a motion picture-style ratings system for albums.&hellip Violent lyrics would be marked with a 'V,' Satanic or anti-Christian occult content with an 'O,' and lyrics referencing drugs or alcohol with a 'D/A.'"

In 1985, the PMRC issued a list of 15 songs&mdashnicknamed the "Filthy Fifteen"&mdash​which it deemed particularly objectionable and deserving of being banned from radio airplay. The Filthy Fifteen included songs by household-name pop stars like Madonna, Cyndi Lauper and&mdashof course&mdashPrince's "Darling Nikki." It also took aim at heavy metal, targeting lesser-known groups W.A.S.P., Venom and Mercyful Fate. The list included Twisted Sister's "We're Not Gonna Take It," which had become a hit single and video on MTV in 1984.

Susan Baker: Our goal in the beginning was just to alert people.&hellip We just said, "Well, we'll start this group and see if we can get some labeling or some ratings. Kind of like movies." Within the first five or six months, we talked to Stan Gortikov, head of the RIAA. So we were working with him, and within a year they agreed that they would do something. One year afterward, they really weren't doing much of anything. When they were putting labels on things, they were real small and you couldn't read them. We had a big-time meeting with him. And by that time, we had a lot of publicity&mdashin Newsweek and on the TV with Oprah and different things, Good Morning America. People were really getting riled up about it. Some legislators were even introducing bills to have in their state so they would have to have certain things on the labels.

Cerphe Colwell, longtime Washington, D.C., radio personality who testified at the PMRC hearing: Ironically, most of the heavy metal songs that they listed at the time were virtually unknown to the public. Heavy metal as a music format hadn't really blossomed. I truly believe to this day that one of the reasons that metal took off so much in the 1980s as a successful format is that the PMRC brought attention to what they thought was unacceptable, and of course that made it very much in the spotlight.

Cronos, singer for the Filthy Fifteen-targeted Venom: I was told about the PMRC during a recording session in the '80s, and I thought someone had hidden cameras, like pulling a prank on me to see my reaction, so I dismissed it as bollocks. Then, when I found out they were real, I couldn't understand how supposedly intelligent people could be so ignorant. Of course rock and roll has all of the subject matter they accused it of having. It's rock and roll! It's supposed to be hard-core and edgy. Most of us rockers have families, and we are responsible parents. We don't need the PMRC doing our jobs of protecting our kids from the harmful shit in this world. I would have been more upset if one of my songs or albums had not taken pride of place on their list.

Dee Snider, frontman for the Filthy Fifteen-targeted Twisted Sister: You talk about the music that was on the Filthy Fifteen, it's easy listening by today's standards. It's more than ironic that in the movie Rock of Ages, the Parents Music Resource Center-esque group headed by Catherine Zeta-Jones sang "We're Not Gonna Take It" at the rock star! That's irony in its purest form.

Susan Baker: We went all over the country talking to PTA groups and parent groups. And we'd say, "Look. This kind of inappropriate stuff is going to be out there in the culture. So you have to teach your kids to think critically about it."

Blackie Lawless, singer for the Filthy Fifteen-targeted W.A.S.P.: It's true, they made us a household word. But they made us a household word of people's grandmothers in the Midwest. Because the kids already knew who we were. The kids already had the records. Yeah, they make you a household word to somebody's grandma, but grandmas don't buy records. I think a lot of artists thought, OK, this exposure's gonna help us sell more records. But I don't think in reality it did. I know it didn't for us.

Joanne McDuffie, singer for the Filthy Fifteen-targeted Mary Jane Girls: I thought it was weird. It was like, "Really?"&hellip When they picked that song ["In My House"], I remember being really, really irritated, because there was nothing in the song that would suggest anything inappropriate. Was the song about sex? Of course it was. But lyrically, it was very tastefully done. It wasn't something that would make your kids go, "Oooh, I'm gonna go figure out what she's talking about."

Blackie Lawless: I'm coming from a whole different perspective because I don't know if you're aware or not, but I'm a born-again Christian. I've not played that song ["Animal (Fuck Like a Beast)"] for almost 10 years. That song would not be something I would want to be represented as.

Joanne McDuffie: I think it was a blacklist. Or a modern-day witch hunt. Or an attempt at censorship for certain artists and certain songs. When I look at what happened, it didn't stop the airplay.&hellip What it did stop was our consideration for the awards that I think any other artist of our stature or our popularity would have gotten.

On September 19, 1985, the PMRC's efforts culminated in a much-publicized Senate hearing to consider the group's proposal. There, Tipper Gore advocated for "a warning label on music products inappropriate for younger children due to explicit sexual or violent lyrics." Alongside members of the PMRC, the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation heard testimony from three popular musicians: Frank Zappa, Dee Snider and John Denver.

All three argued voraciously against what they characterized as censorship. In perhaps the most enduring testimony from the hearing, Zappa described the PMRC's proposal as "an ill-conceived piece of nonsense which fails to deliver any real benefits to children, infringes the civil liberties of people who are not children and promises to keep the courts busy for years."

Dee Snider: I just remember getting a call from my management office asking, "Would you testify at these hearings?" And I was like, "Hell, yeah." I assumed this would be, like, young people would rise up! And I was being asked to carry the flag. Didn't give it a second thought. "Yes, I will carry the flag into battle. Follow me!" As I stood out there by myself on the field of honor, I realized that nobody was following.

Susan Baker: Tipper and I were the ones that testified. It gave us more exposure, which we were hoping for. It was kind of a circus.&hellip We were called awful things. They called us bored housewives and a bunch of crazy alcoholics. It was not a pleasant thing. But we said, "Well, so what? We think this is right." We just soldiered on. Like I said, the four founders really felt like we'd made progress and accomplished something.

Cerphe Colwell: I got a call from Frank Zappa and he said that he was testifying. Evidently somebody in his circle said that the PMRC, which was part of a Senate select subcommittee, was looking for some music experts. I was sort of a go-to guy. At that point I'd been on radio in D.C. for maybe 16, 17, 18 years. I played Frank's music and Frank had been a guest on my show many times. I jumped at the chance.

Larry Stein, attorney for Frank Zappa: [Zappa] was asked to, and he definitely wanted to because he felt very strongly about the issue. So we accepted the invitation for him to testify, prepared for it and went back there and testified. And my 15 minutes of fame is that when that MTV clip plays, he walks into the Senate and says, "Hi, my name is Frank Zappa and this is my lawyer, Larry Stein." The only picture of a client that I actually have in my office is the picture of Frank and me at the U.S. Senate.

Gail Zappa, Frank Zappa's widow: They were saying that they were going to have a hearing. And that pissed Frank off because it was a waste of resources and expenses to get involved in censorship of people's artwork, apart from everything else. He was pissed.

Dee Snider: The majority of fans just didn't get the significance of what was going on. "Now we know what records to buy!" That was the battle cry of the teens. "We know what records the cool records are!" Bullshit.

Larry Stein: It was fun getting Frank ready for his testimony. We believed that he would be taken much more seriously if he looked a little more businesslike. It was kind of fun if you see this picture of me and Frank together. This particular picture, his hair looks short, he's wearing a white shirt and a red tie and a dark suit. When people come into my office, I look like Don Johnson during the Miami Vice period. My tie is a little bit down, and I'm wearing a silver tie and people often come in and go, "Which one was the lawyer in that picture?" Frank knew what he had to do.

Dee Snider: I never met John [Denver].&hellip I remember Frank and I standing back.&hellip We were both not sure where John would be in this. We knew where he should be, as an artist&mdashhe should be on our side. But, again, he had crossed over, and he was literally that day coming back from NASA, where they were talking about him being the first musician in space.&hellip So when he came out and spoke&mdashand he spoke honestly about the way "Rocky Mountain High" had been protested and the movie Oh, God! had been protested and he stood against censorship of any kind&mdashwe were cheering in the back.

Frank Zappa (in The Real Frank Zappa Book): My only regret about that episode is that, under the rules of the hearing, I was not afforded an opportunity to respond when I was denounced by a semiapoplectic Slade Gorton (former Republican senator from Washington state) for my "constitutional ignorance." I would have liked to remind him that although I flunked just about everything else in high school, I did get an 'A' in Civics.

Slade Gorton (former senator from Washington): I didn't so much argue with [Zappa]. I told him what I thought of him and his language. You would have to look at the record of the hearings to get all of it. I just remember I attended the hearings. Senator Gore was a member of the committee. Frank Zappa was absolutely insulting and, I think, profane in his reference not only to their ideas but to them as individuals. The woman's husband didn't defend them. And I got very angry and did so.

Susan Baker: Some of [Zappa's testimony] was ludicrous. But John Denver was there, too. We understand how people feel. It's free speech! But we say, yes, speech is free. But when you buy a product in the store, it has a label on it that tells you what the ingredients are.

Slade Gorton: I have held Al Gore in utmost contempt ever since that day. He was on the committee and refused to defend his own wife.

Dee Snider: Gotta give John Denver [credit]. His testimony was one of the most scathing, because they fully expected&mdashhe was such a mom-American-pie-John-Denver-Christmas-special-fresh-scrubbed guy. Everyone expected that he would be on the side of right&mdashright being censorship. When he brought up, "I liken this to the Nazi book burnings"&mdashthat's what he said in his testimony&mdashyou should've seen them start running for the hills! His testimony was the most powerful in many ways.

Dweezil Zappa: The whole experience of that was that we watched our dad go up against these people and just speak in a way that was great, because he went straight to the root of the problem. That's why it was great to hear him make remarks like that. He had one quote that was hilarious, where he said to the senators something to the effect of, "You are treating this problem like treating dandruff by decapitation."

The Senate hearings attracted a wealth of national media attention. In the aftermath, Frank Zappa appeared on TV several times, debating PMRC supporters. (Memorably, during a Crossfire appearance, he responded to a barb from Washington Times columnist John Lofton with: "How about you kiss my ass?") Zappa seemed to relish the opportunity to state his case while Snider resented that the politics overshadowed the music. Meanwhile, the PMRC succeeded in establishing the black-and-white Parental Advisory label, which began appearing on album covers at the discretion of individual labels. The PMRC gradually faded by the time Al Gore ran for president during the 1988 election.

Frank Zappa (in The Real Frank Zappa Book): A CNN show called Crossfire covered the PMRC topic twice with me as a guest, the first time in 1986 (when I told that guy from The Washington Times to kiss my ass), and then again in 1987, when George Michael's sex song was "controversial." Believe it or not, ladies and gentlemen, the premise of that second debate on Crossfire was (don't laugh) "Does Rock Music Cause AIDS?"

Kandie Stroud: I was asked by Charlie Rose to come on the show. If you want to call it a debate, call it a debate. He [Zappa] was not an ennobling human being. He made statements as far as I can remember like "This is about the First Amendment." It wasn't about the First Amendment. I'm a journalist, don't you think I support the First Amendment? It was about parental guidance [and] the music industry being responsible for what they poured into children's minds.

Dee Snider: It's a horrendous effect. Everything I feared and more. When I went to Washington, my concern was it wasn't about informing parents. It was that the sticker would be misused. The concern was that it would be used to segregate records. To keep creative artists' work from the general public. And true to form, stores wouldn't rack certain records.

Cerphe Colwell: Just as Frank had predicted, many stores, including Walmart, stopped carrying the dreaded, demonized records-carrying labels.

Gail Zappa: He did say that when these hearings were over, a lot of artists were going to get their contracts canceled. And, ironically, Frank was the first one that that happened to. Immediately after the hearing. They wanted his work to conform, and Frank provided a sticker that guaranteed that you wouldn't end up in hell if you listened to the lyrics. And they did not consider that sufficient. It was MCA that canceled his contract. They were offended by the language.&hellip In 1987, Frank won a Grammy. In order for the committee to consider it&mdashin order to be considered for a Grammy&mdashrecord companies or artists submit copies of the record to various committees that would make determinations or vote on that particular record's eligibility. And so in the case of Jazz From Hell, they said, "Well, how come this doesn't have a sticker on it?" I said, "Why should it have a sticker?" "Well, shouldn't Frank's music be censored?" Well, really? Want to run that by me again? It turned out that nobody had listened to it. It's all instrumental.

Though the Parental Advisory labels are largely obsolete 30 years later, the question of the PMRC's lasting legacy remains. PMRC members interviewed for this article say they're proud of the work they accomplished. They feel they succeeded in promoting parental awareness of explicit lyrics Susan Baker says it still gives her a smile when she sees a Parental Advisory sticker and knows she helped make that happen. But some of the artists targeted by the organization describe career downturns, label woes and&mdashin some instances&mdashdeath threats in the aftermath of the hearings. Prince and Madonna, meanwhile, are still playing "Darling Nikki" and "Like a Virgin" three decades later. Madonna performed "Virgin" Wednesday night at Madison Square Garden. Her latest album, Rebel Heart, comes sealed with a "Parental Advisory" sticker.

Tipper Gore, co-founder of the PMRC: In this era of social media and online access, it seems quaint to think that parents can have control over what their children see and hear. But I think this conversation between parents and kids is as relevant today as it was back in the '80s. Music is a universal language that crosses generations, race, religion, sex and more. Never has there been more need for communication and understanding on these issues as there is today. All of the artists and record companies who still use the advisory label should be applauded for helping parents and kids have these conversations about lyrics around their own values.

Susan Baker: [PMRC] stopped being operational about the mid-'90s. I moved and came back to Texas. We did what we felt we could do. We feel like we made a contribution.

Sis Levin: All I can say is, it was a group of courageous women who were willing to step out there and say, "This is bad, this is hurting our children, this is having an effect on not only the homes and the schools but the whole community. We need to take a serious look at this." That was pretty gutsy of them.

Joanne McDuffie: It kind of blacklisted me from certain areas of the business.&hellip We didn't get the Grammys. We didn't get the American Music Awards, because of [the PMRC]. It cut me off at a certain point. I think that kind of stopped us before we got started. It stopped everything so that now there are only certain audiences who know about [our music]. Because it might have not played in certain areas or on certain radio stations. I think it hurt me.

Frank Zappa (in The Real Frank Zappa Book): If the scare tactics of groups like the PMRC and Back in Control have not made an impact on musicians, they have certainly made one on the executives of the record companies who can tell artists what the labels will or will not accept as suitable material under the artist's contract.

Blackie Lawless: I used to tell people that I felt like a brick wall, that nobody could knock me down. But it's very subtle the way it happens. A death threat here, somebody tampering with one of your vehicles there. It's not like someone tries to knock down your wall overnight. They take away one brick every day. And then pretty soon, you turn around and you look behind you [and] there's no more bricks in your wall. It ended up making me more of a recluse than anything.

Joanne McDuffie: Our song had the potential and was on its way to being No. 1. When they put that sticker on it, I think it maybe stopped at five. It definitely stopped us from going to No. 1.&hellip I remember having an endorsement at the time from Ford Motors. But after this labeling thing, it disappeared.

Dweezil Zappa: Oddly enough, during the Clinton administration, we did have several occasions to spend some time with the Gores and actually became friends with them. It was never a battle of, "Oh, these people are terrible people."

Dee Snider: I feel a certain responsibility to carry the torch. It was certainly something that the Gores tried very hard to sweep under the carpet when he was running with Bill Clinton for the vice presidency.

Susan Baker: Tipper did not back away from the work that we'd done in the PMRC when Al was running for president, even though she got a lot of flack. Some of the people in his campaign seemed to walk back a little bit.

Joanne McDuffie: Let's go back to why they created this whole agency. It was for parents to control what your children were listening to. I was a parent at the time! That was my job. I was a single parent. I had a daughter and a son at the time. I'm gonna be mindful of what I'm singing because these kids are gonna grow up. I didn't want them to be ashamed of anything I was doing, nor did I want to be.

Dee Snider: Long-term, it was the first time people started to see me as having more to say than just a couple of catchy tunes. That I had a brain. A day doesn't go by that somebody doesn't walk up to me and say, "Thank you! For doing what you did."

Susan Baker: When we're traveling, sometimes somebody will come up to me when they find out who I am and they say, "We really thank you for doing that. Thank you for making us more aware."

Watch the video: Twisted Sister - Street justice (January 2022).